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Web MVC with the Spring Framework(转贴)  

2006-09-21 22:12:24|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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1. Introduction: Spring the Application Framework
1.介绍:Spring 应用构架

When first confronted with the Spring Framework, one might betempted to think: "Oh no, not yet another web framework". Thisarticle will outline why Spring isn't particularly a web frameworkbut a generic lightweight application framework with dedicated websupport, and show the architectural differences to Struts andWebWork

当你第一次看到Spring的时候,你一定会说:"哦 不,又一种web构架".这篇文章将告诉你Spring明显区别于其他轻量级applicationframework,
它将专注于web的支持,与struts 和 webwork有着明显的区别。

In contrast to Struts or WebWork, Spring is an applicationframework for all layers: It offers a bean configurationfoundation, AOP support, a JDBC abstraction framework, abstracttransaction support, etc. It is a very non-intrusive effort: Yourapplication classes do not need to depend on any Spring classes ifnot necessary, and you can reuse every part on its own if you liketo. From its very design, the framework encourages clean separationof tiers, most importantly web tier and business logic: e.g. thevalidation framework does not depend on web controllers. Majorgoals are reusability and testability: Unnecessary container orframework dependencies can be considered avoidable evils.

在和struts 和webwork的对比上,Spring是一个服务于所有层面的applicationframework:提供了bean的配置基础,AOP的支持,JDBC的提取框架,
抽象事务支持,等等。它有一个非常显著的特点:在某个层面上如果你不需要Spring的支持,你就可以不使用String的class,只使用它的某一部分的功能。
从它的设计理念,你可以看到String帮助你实现了真正的逻辑层和web层的分离:例如。一个校验应用将不用依靠controllers,就可以实现。这样的目标是
更好的重用和易测:过分依靠不必要的容器和框架将不能实现这一点。

Of course, Spring's own web support is nicely integrated with theframework's general patterns. Nevertheless, replacing the websolution with Struts, WebWork, or the like is easy. Both withSpring's web support or a different one, Spring allows for buildinga true dedicated middle tier in the web container, with the optionto reuse exactly the same business logic in test environments orstandalone applications. And within J2EE, your business logic willnot unnecessarily depend on container services like JTA or EJB -allowing complex, well-architected web applications to run in a"simple" container like Tomcat or Resin.

当然,Spring的自己的web支持和通常框架模式的细致完整.然而,Spring替换struts,webwork或者其他的web方案非常的容易.对于Spring的web支持或者不同的地方,Spring允许你在web容器里面建立一个中间层,在测试环境或者标准独立的应用里面来设置重用你的商务逻辑.还有在J2EE环境里面,你的商务逻辑不必依靠容器提供的服务,像JTA,EJB的支持.良好的构架的web应用可以运行在任何容器上,如,Tomcat 或者Resin.

Note that Spring doesn't generally aim to compete with existingsolutions. It rather fosters seamless integration with standardslike Servlet, JSP, JTA, JNDI, JDBC, and JDO, and well-suited toolslike Hibernate, Velocity, Log4J, and Caucho's Hessian/Burlap. Theframework is designed to grow with the needs of your applications,in terms of technology choice: For example, you will probably useJTA via Spring's JtaTransactionManager if you need distributedtransactions - but only then, as there are perfect replacements forsingle databases, like DataSourceTransactionManager orHibernateTransactionManager.

值得注意的是,Spring 不是和已经存在的解决方案进行竞争.我们鼓励结合标准的技术,如, Servlet, JSP, JTA, JNDI, JDBC, andJDO, 和非常匹配的工具,如,Hibernate, Velocity, Log4J, and Caucho'sHessian/Burlap.这个框架的的设计思想是在你的应用需要改良的时候,你将会做一些技术的选择:例如,如果你需要分布式事务处理,你可能需要用Spring的JtaTransactionManager来实现JTA服务.或者,用DataSourceTransactionManager orHibernateTransactionManager 来实现美妙完美的单个数据库交换。

2. Web MVC: The Design of Spring's Web Framework
Web MVC:Spring web 框架的设计思想

Spring's web framework is designed around a DispatcherServlet thatdispatches requests to handlers, with configurable handlermappings, view resolution, and locale and theme resolution. Thedefault handler is a very simple Controller inte***ce, justoffering a "ModelAndView handleRequest(request,response)" method.This can already be used for application controllers, but you willprefer the included implementation hierarchy, consisting ofAbstractController, AbstractCommandController,MultiActionController, SimpleFormController,AbstractWizardFormController. Application controllers willtypically be subclasses of those. Note that you can choose anappropriate base class: If you don't have a form, you don't need aFormController. This is a major difference to Struts.

Spring框架通过配置操作mappings,展示resolution,本地化和模版集成围绕着分派请求操作的servlet- DispatcherServlet设计的.缺省的操作是一个非常简单的控制接口,
他只提供了ModelAndViewhandleRequest(request,response)方法.这将用于一个应用的控制,但是,如果你想包含多个层次的控制,AbstractController,AbstractCommandController, MultiActionController,SimpleFormController, AbstractWizardFormController将帮助你完成.应用控制将代表那些子系统.注意,你可以选择一个适当的基类:如果你没有web form,你就不必用FormController.这就是和Struts最大的不同.

You can take any object as command or form object: There's no needto implement an inte***ce or derive from a base class. Spring'sdata binding is highly flexible, e.g. it treats type mismatches asvalidation errors that can be evaluated by the application, not assystem errors. So you don't need to duplicate your businessobjects' properties as Strings in your form objects, just to beable to handle invalid submissions, or to convert the Stringsproperly. Instead, it's often preferable to bind directly to yourbusiness objects. This is another major difference to Struts whichis built around required base classes like Action and ActionForm -for every type of action.

你可以通过命令或者form对象来操作任何对象:这不需要接口工具或者一个基础类的驱动.Spring的数据邦定是非常的灵活的.举例来说,它描述了具有在应用范围内的校验错误的输入机制,但不是系统错误.所以在你的form对象里面你不必复制你的业务对象的string属性,只操作出错的子任务,或者适当地转换string.换句话说,它通常可以很好的直接邦定你的业务对象.
这也是和struts围绕请求基础类Action 和 ActionForm(每个action操作类型) 建立主要的不同之一.

Compared to WebWork, Spring has more differentiated object roles:It supports the notion of a Controller, an optional command or formobject, and a model that gets passed to the view. The model willnormally include the command or form object but also arbitraryreference data. Instead, a WebWork Action combines all those rolesinto one single object. WebWork does allow you to use existingbusiness objects as part of your form, but just by ****** them beanproperties of the respective Action class. Finally, the same Actioninstance that handles the request gets used for evaluation and formpopulation in the view. Thus, reference data needs to be modelledas bean properties of the Action too. These are arguably too manyroles in one object.

对比WebWork,Sping更多的区别在于对象角色:Sping支持控制器的感念,一个操作命令或者form对象,和得到数据传递给视图的模式.这个模式通常包含命令和form对象,但有时也包含任意的参考数据.换句话说,一个WebWorkAction联合所有这些角色到一个单独的对象.WebWork允许你用已经存在的业务对象作为你 form 的一部分,但是只生成各自Action的 bean 属性. 最后,操作请求的Action实例在一个视图里面获得付值和form population.然而,参考数据也需要作为Action 的属性被模拟.一个类里面有太多的角色是值得讨论的.

Regarding views: Spring's view resolution i* **tremely flexible. AController implementation can even write a view directly to theresponse, returning null as ModelAndView. In the normal case, aModelAndView instance consists of a view name and a model Map,containing bean names and corresponding objects (like a command orform, reference data, etc). View name resolution is highlyconfigurable, either via bean names, via a properties file, or viayour own ViewResolver implementation. The abstract model Map allowsfor complete abstraction of the view technology, without anyhassle: Be it JSP, Velocity, or anything else - every renderer canbe integrated directly. The model Map simply gets transformed intoan appropriate format, like JSP request attributes or a Velocitytemplate model.

关于视图:Spring的视图方案非常的灵活. 一个控制器执行可以通过response返回ModelAndView对象null,就可以直接写到一个视图.在通常的状况下,一个ModelAndView实例结合了
一个view 和一个 model Map,包含了bean name 和通讯对象(像命令或者form,参考数据等等).View名称是非常高端的的配置,不是通过bean name, 一个properties文件就是通过你自己的ViewResolver.这个抽象的model Map允许你在视图层面完成提取,没有任何的争辩:JSP,Velocity,或者其他,每一种都可以直接完整使用.这个modelMap 还可以简单得得到适当的格式化数据的转换,像JSP请求属性或者Velocity 模版模式.

3. Integration: Using a Different Web Framework withSpring
集成:用Spring一个不同web 框架

Many teams will try to leverage their investments in terms ofknow-how and tools, both for existing projects and for new ones.Concretely, there are not only a large number of books and toolsfor Struts but also a lot of developers that have experience withit. Thus, if you can live with Struts' architectural flaws, it canstill be a viable choice for the web layer. The same applies toWebWork and other web frameworks.

许多开发团队将为他们已有的项目或者新的项目已经获得的期限和工具进行投资.这里没有像Struts那样大量的图书和工具,但是同样我们有大量的拥有Spring开发技巧的开发人员.然而,如果你愿意生活在Struts的构架瑕疵中的话,他将是你在web层开发不错的选择.当然,其他应用也是一样.

If you don't want to use Spring's web MVC but intend to leverageother solutions that Spring offers, you can integrate the webframework of your choice with Spring easily. Simply start up aSpring root application context via its ContextLoaderListener, andaccess it via its ServletContext attribute (or Spring's respectivehelper method) from within a Struts or WebWork action. Note thatthere aren't any "plugins" involved, therefore no dedicatedintegration: From the view of the web layer, you'll simply useSpring as a library, with the root application context instance asentry point.

如果你不想用Spring的 web MVC,但是想借用Spring嫁接其他的解决方案,你可以非常简单地通过Spring继承你自己的web框架.你可以非常简单地通过ContextLoaderListener
启动一个Spring root application context, 并且,通过Struts或者WebWork 的action 利用ServletContext 属性(或者Spring的helper方法)存取它. 值得注意的是, 这里没有任何的
"plugins"被调用,因此没有专门的集成:来自web层的视图,你可以简单的将Spring作为一个管理application context实例入口点的类库.


All your registered beans and all of Spring's services can be atyour fingertips even without Spring's web MVC. Spring doesn'tcompete with Struts or WebWork in this usage, it just addresses themany areas that the pure web frameworks don't, from beanconfiguration to data access and transaction handling. So you areable to enrich your application with a Spring middle tier and/ordata access tier, even if you just want to use e.g. the transactionabstraction with JDBC or Hibernate.

所有你注册bean和Spring服务都可以在不需要Spring的webMVC的情况下都可以被你轻松掌握.Spring 不是和Struts,WebWork这些应用进行竞争,它将作为一个纯web框架应用于
很多领域,因为它不需要配置数据存储和事务操作.所以,你可以利用Spring提供的中间层和数据存储层来丰富你的应用,甚至,你想用JDBC或者Hibernate进行事务抽象.

4. Feature Check List
特点核对列表

If just focussing on the web support, some of Spring's uniquefeatures are:

如果聚焦于web 支持,Spring的一些显著特点是:

.Clear separation of roles: controller vs validator vs commandobject vs form object vs model object, DispatcherServlet vs handlermapping vs view resolver, etc.

清楚地角色分离:controller , validator , command object , formobject , model object,和 DispatcherServlet , handler mapping vsview resolver, 等等

.Powerful and straightforward configuration of both framework andapplication classes as JavaBeans, including easy in-betweenreferencing via an application context, e.g. from web controllersto business objects and validators.

强大而且直接的框架和作为JavaBeans的应用配置,包括简单的参照和应用内容,例如,从web控制器到业务对象和数据校验.

.Adaptability, non-intrusiveness: Use whatever Controller subclassyou need (plain, command, form, wizard, multi action, or a customone) for a given scenario instead of deriving fromAction/ActionForm for everything.

适应性,外挂:无论什么样的控制器你都需要得到代替Action/ActionForm所做的每件事情的方案(简单,命令,form,范例,多重action,或者定制一个)

.Reusable business code, no need for duplication: You can useexisting business objects as command or form objects instead ofmirroring them in special ActionForm subclasses.

重用业务逻辑代码,不需要复制:你可以用已经有的业务逻辑对象作为命令或则form对象代替反射特定的ActionForm子类.

.Customizable binding and validation: type mismatches asapplication-level validation errors that keep the offending value,localized date and number binding, etc instead of String-only formobjects with manual parsing and conversion to businessobjects.

可订制的邦定和数据校验:作为应用级的输入机制的错误校验,固定日期和数字邦定,例如,通过手动检查和转换业务对象来替换单个的string。

.Customizable handler mapping, customizable view resolution:flexible model transfer via name/value Map, handler mapping andview resolution strategies from simple to sophisticated instead ofone single way.

可订制的操作,可订制的视图方案:通过name/valueMap灵活的模型传送,用一个简单的方法从简单到复杂操作映射和视图方案策略.

.Customizable locale and theme resolution, support for JSPs withand without Spring tag library, support for JSTL, support forVelocity without the need for extra bridges, etc.

本地定制和主题方案:Spring没有taglib,完全支持于JSPs,JSTL,不需要额外的连接就可以支持Velocity,等等.

.Simple but powerful tag library that avoids HTML generation at anycost, allowing for maximum flexibility in terms of markupcode.

简单但是强大的taglibrary避免了HTML产生的混乱,最大限度的灵活扩展了标记代码.

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